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Further, while all women experience a decline in estrogen following menopause, not all women report sexual problems, vasomotor symptoms, or mood disturbances. Thus, the research does not provide support for this hypothesis. These findings suggest that studies need to control for vasomotor symptoms in analyses of any direct effect of menopause on mood. However, only vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes and night sweats have been clearly and consistently associated with menopause. Are changing hormones, vasomotor symptoms, and sleep disturbances independently related to sexual functioning and mood or is there a causal chain? 5. Further, other studies suggest that not all women who have vasomotor symptoms experience mood disturbances. The domino metaphor embodied a zero-sum game, a political system within which only two powers existed (the USSR and the United States), where only force could oppose force and where the unfolding of the process was inevitableonce started, the continuing fall of states was as unavoidable as stopping a line of dominoes from toppling once the first had been pushed. Tung-Tsan Chen, Sou-Sen Leu, in Safety Science, 2014. If necessary, these tasks can be broken down into more detailed subtasks. The completed FT of falling at bridge construction projects are shown in Fig. Further research needs to focus on developing a better understanding of women who may be at risk for mood effects of the menopause transition and whether there is a pattern in response to periods of hormonal fluctuations. Evidence suggests that the rate of hormonal changes may be the important regulatory variable, rather than absolute hormonal level (Schmidt and Rubinow, 1991), which may explain why associations between hormones and mood disorders and sexual functioning are stronger for women undergoing a bilateral oophorectomy than for naturally menopausal women. For this purpose, the use of allies close to the hostile countries in the deployment of nuclear weapons and the use of war vehicles such as submarines were developed as alternatives. According to this view, the greatest psychological impact of menopause should be found among women as they transition from pre- to peri-menopause. In practice, safety professionals perceive unsafe act as the easiest-to-blame domino, and leave unsafe conditions generally unattended. For example, an employee may injure himself or herself at work, when using a piece of equipment; accident causation theories focus on understanding the role of human factors (such as carelessness, rule-breaking, and lack of attention), ergonomics (such as the design of the equipment and its fit with the person using it), job-related factors (such as time pressure and workload), and wider organizational factors (such as the quality of supervision and the safety culture). The ILCI model explicitly considers contact with energy as the domino leading to injury. Finally, we need to understand how these various changes relate to each other. One of the formative documents of the Cold War was sent as a telegram from Moscow, by George KennanMr Xa US official in the Soviet Union at the end of World War II. These regions became battlefields for both superpowers, each supporting local surrogates militarily, politically, and economically. Building on early geographically derived geopolitical theories, and holding static interpretations of global and regional spatial patterns, they introduced into the lexicon of Cold War geopolitics such politicalstrategic doctrines as containment, domino theory, balancing linkages, and linchpin state. Another important challenge at the strategic level was experienced beyond having a first-strike capability to have a second-strike capability to respond when faced with a nuclear attack. Are such effects due to abnormal biochemical changes resulting from hormonal fluctuations, a woman's general sensitivity to symptoms, or a coping style? Such metaphors saw the spread of communism or socialism as a result of proximity to territory ruled by Soviets. The main purpose of the operational level is to ensure the combined use of air, land, and sea elements acting separately at the tactical level. However, Cold War era strategic approaches were too focused on nuclear deterrence under the influence of the ideological blindness of the time. As well as the more obvious discourses emanating from politicians, geopolitical discourse has also been explored through film and other media. Therefore, strategic approaches other than nuclear capacity were largely ignored. Another popular geopolitical doctrine, domino theory, was first proposed by William Bullitt (1947), who feared that Soviet Communist power would spread, via China, into Southeast Asia. Epidemiologic studies of menopause and sexual functioning show some impact of menopause on sexual functioning, but this does not appear directly related to changing hormones. It has tended to be concerned with international relations and in particular with the geostrategic concerns of major powers. However, it was clearly seen in this period that strategic calculations made only on numerical data may lead to the ignorance of historical and social realities as in the Vietnam War. Much traditional geopolitical writing has tended not just to be written from the perspective of a particular geographical and ideological standpoint, but also from an assumption of inevitability with a strong focus on geopolitics as a form of political practice. There is much needed research in this area. The domino theory of menopausal symptoms proposes that vasomotor symptoms lead to other effects such as sexual dysfunction and mood disturbances. Fig. These were, most importantly, containment, domino effects, and disease metaphors. Other factors that may be related are coping style or a greater sensitivity to symptoms. The Vietnam War proved that in a period of focusing on nuclear weapons at the strategic level, wars based on the principles of irregular warfare at the tactical level can be experienced. Its members included Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and Britain. These findings suggest that studies need to control for vasomotor symptoms in analyses of any direct effect of menopause on mood. Within the Cold War there are clearly demonstrable geostrategic elements within US thinking. The argument insisted on the necessity for the United States to fight and win in Vietnam, for if South Vietnam fell to the communists and turned communist, then this would set in motion the tumbling of other states in the regionlike falling dominoes; as Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Burma would turn communist as well. Researchers have shown that estrogen can alter brain neurotransmitter activity in several ways, although the majority of this research has been conducted in animals and the extent to which neurotransmitter activity interacts with menopause-related mood changes has yet to be determined [22].

Here the emphasis on realpolitik is challenged by a view that refuses to accept the inevitability of current power relations and that affords the possibility (and desirability) of radical change.

Prospective research needs to follow women during their reproductive years to examine continuity with respect to responses to times of hormonal change. Epidemiologic studies of menopause and mood do not show consistent evidence of a relation between menopause and depression or other negative moods in the general population. Models based on domino theory are also known as process models (Kjellen and Larsson, 1981). For example, when the USSR was constructed as being completely unlike the United States, any description of the USSR as evil, aggressive, and unreasonable implies goodness, tolerance, and reason on the part of Americans. This conclusion is supported by reviews of the literature on menopause and depression [25,113]. While menopausal symptoms are related to depression, correlational studies of mood and hormone levels have failed to show a relation between depressed mood and estrogen levels. A strand of this is exploring the geopolitical discourses used by governments and political leaders. Understanding people's behavior not only provides an insight into how accidents and injuries occur, but also helps develop effective strategies to ensure that people use safety equipment, such as car seat belts and safety helmets, which have been designed to protect them.

S.B. Left unchecked, this process would continue to spread around the world, and would not stop until it reached the last standing domino, the United States. This image of two distinct and incompatible territorial blocks was reinforced by political discourse whether Churchill's image of an Iron Curtain dividing Europe, or Ronald Reagan's depiction of the Soviet Union as an evil empire. A number of interrelated geopolitical concepts reiterated this binary geography in political discourse. We need research to determine if women vary in their rate of testosterone decline and if this rate changes as a result of menopause. The work of Ratzel and Mackinder are early examples of geopolitical writing with an emphasis on the geographic bases of political strategy. These included invoking of the Monroe Doctrine (with the Americas as the US sphere of influence), the propounding of domino theory (that once one country fell to communism others would follow), and territorial strategies of containment (the prevention of communism spreading beyond its existing borders). Studies have also looked at groupings of symptoms often labeled psychological symptoms, negative affect, or dysphoria. The concern over the ideological spread of the Soviets pushed the United States into an uncertain struggle in Vietnam without an understandable political goal. The domino theory assumed that Soviets, communists, and socialists everywhere were unqualifiedly evil. Further research should examine more closely whether asymptomatic women show fluctuations in mood. The logical consequence of this policy was non-intervention in the 1968 Czech uprising, acquiescing to the Brezhnev Doctrine, which held that military force was justified to keep the socialist countries of Eastern and Central Europe within the Soviet camp. The ways in which events such as the Vietnam War have been framed by filmmakers or the worldview refracted through other media are examples of the ways in which people, places, and events are represented and through which particular ideologies (often using simplistic representations of good and evil and particular constructions of concepts such as freedom) are disseminated and reproduced. Heinrich suggests the concept of dominos (Heinrich, 1932) to explain accident causation. The circumstances surrounding work tasks that could play a role in triggering a fall accident can be analyzed by means of expert interview and literature review. Studies that have included measures of stress or life changes have typically found that social factors are highly related to mood, and often more so than menopause status.

The ways in which events such as the Vietnam War have been framed by filmmakers or the worldview refracted through publications such as Reader's Digest are examples of the ways in which people, places, and events are represented and through which particular ideologies (often using simplistic representations of good guys and bad guys and particular constructions of concepts such as freedom) are disseminated and reproduced. assassination kennedy john jfk bullet secret service 1963 struck president plaza overview Kennan argued that the Soviet Union was absolutely different from the United States so there could be no possibility of compromise between the two. Space is reduced to units which singularly display evidence of the characteristics which are used to define the spaces in the first place (Asia is exoticism, the USSR is communism, Iran is fundamentalism, the United States is freedom and democracy, and so on). Russia's historical geography, and not simply its political and cultural difference, was invoked to give this argument scientific respectability: the USSR was seen as an inherently expansionary force, which had to be kept in check. Geopolitics is sometimes defined as the geographical dimensions of power (and hence seen as synonymous with political geography). Estradiol has been related to vaginal dryness and painful intercourse, but not other aspects of sexual function. Copyright 2022 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors.

Research concerned with accident causation is largely the domain of psychologists, sociologists, and behavioral scientists. Further, even though all women experience a decline in estrogen following menopause, not all women report mood disturbances. Androgens are thought to be important for libido, but have not been shown to be related to sexual functioning and natural menopause. The relations between these causes and the top event are connected by logical gates as shown in Fig. However, only vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes and night sweats have been clearly and consistently associated with menopause. For example, at the pier column construction, there are two main tasks in which a fall could happen: (1) improper lifting operations; and (2) incorrect scaffolding setting. Events in the sequence may relate to characteristics of the environment (e.g., unsafe conditions), as well as characteristics of people (e.g., unsafe behavior). D. Storey, in International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 2009. To maintain the balance of power, the Nixon administration sought Moscow's agreement on strategic arms limitations and mutual nuclear deterrence, and tried to play China off against the USSR. Future research should examine more closely whether asymptomatic women show fluctuations in mood. Although the postpartum period is not always associated with depression, women with previous depression, a history of premenstrual dysphoric disorder, or a history of bipolar disorder are at increased risk for postpartum depression [117]. All those on the inside have particular character traits (or should have, in this normative vision) which are completely at odds with those of outside. The role of androgens in women who experience a natural menopause has barely been looked at. It was adopted by both the Kennedy and Nixon administrations, rationalizing American intervention in Vietnam to save the rest of Southeast Asia (O'Sullivan 1982). Another important feature of this period is that strategic studies became an interdisciplinary field in which different disciplines from sociology to physics and statistics also contribute. The idealistic vision that had prompted the USA to support freedom and democratization among colonial peoples quickly gave way to expedient realpolitikpropping up right-wing dictatorships in order to stop the threat of Communism. Several researchers have proposed that whereas menopause does not cause mood disturbances in all women, there may be a subgroup of women at higher risk for depression or other mood changes [28,112,116]. Accident causation theories emphasize that multiple factors combine to cause accidents, rather than having a single cause. In the US military, it was implemented in order to increase the joint operation capability of air, land, and sea elements in the increasing technological possibilities and the complex battlefield (Kelly and Brennan, 2009). In this regard, the development of feminist approaches to geopolitics has been significant, and the work of Joanne Sharp and others has been important in highlighting the absence of women from dominant political narratives and exploring the reasons for that absence. Issues of risk quantification across each domino are not addressed in the theory. In 1957, with the discovery of satellite system Sputnik and the rocket technology, the nuclear race and threat became more palpable in the United States side. In this sense, Vietnam can be considered as an unfinished war rather than a lost war. In this there is little consideration of the geopolitical complexity of the global system and of the multiplicity of forces beyond superpower reach that had become active agents in the system. The development of a more critical geopolitics through the work of people like Gearid Tuathail and Simon Dalby has created a more politically challenging perspective on global political issues. Emrah zdemir, in Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, & Conflict (Third Edition), 2022. The Vietnam experience brought the concepts of insurgency and counterinsurgency to the US military literature as well as the concept of air assault operation with the innovation made in the concept of the use of helicopters. This possibility should be examined in future studies. Tactical nuclear weapons, which were developed against this tactical capacity of the Soviets, were not considered as an alternative to strategic bombardment based on mass destruction, but as a complement to it. There is no clear understanding of the mechanisms whereby hormonal changes mediate change in mood [116]. For example, Heinrich's domino theory (1932) links accident causation to a sequence of events in which one event triggers the next (like the falling of dominos). These results suggest that other factors mediate the relation between hormonal level and these variables. With the aid of occupational accident records, safety theories, and expert interview, the interaction of these basic reasons and their indirect causes were identified to form the overall FT. Further research needs to focus more on these two symptoms. Again, geopolitics does not simply reflect the facts of geography but also in dividing the world into a state and the international realm helps to form geographical orders and geographical relationships. Here it is very clear how geopolitical discourse was presented as factual and objective, but that it tied clearly into developing a normative sense of US identity through the creation of the USSR as entirely different and other to America. These constructions, and others such as those deployed by Islamic fundamentalist groups in which the West is characterized as decadent, can be read as geopolitical discourses designed to frame events in particular ways. Out of this narrow focus on unsafe acts, behavioral interventions are commonly designed and implemented, when unsafe conditions demand more attention of the management. Every description of the Soviets as totalitarian or repressive implied the opposite characteristics in the binary opposite space of the United States. David Storey, in International Encyclopedia of Human Geography (Second Edition), 2020. It has been suggested that women with a history of PMS have an increased sensitivity to hormone changes [118] and that women with previous affective disorders that are cyclic or associated with reproductive events are at higher risk [25]. The domino theory that vasomotor symptoms lead to mood disturbances has some support. The current New World Order has been viewed in various ways ranging from Samuel Huntingdon's famous (and somewhat reductionist) exposition of a clash of civilizations to David Harvey's political-economy perspective in which current US geopolitical strategy is seen to be driven by territorial and capitalist imperatives and closely linked to resource control. In the area of sexual functioning this has not been well studied. Their dominance by the USA would effectively contain the Russian Imperial power, protecting Europe and Japan and, in the case of South Korea and the Philippines, preventing encirclement by China. Due to its frequent occurrence and severe impact in bridge construction projects, fall is selected as the top event of the FT in this research. Linkage was applied to detente with the Soviet Union and accommodation with China. While androgens may not be linearly associated with sexual functioning, it is quite possible that women with particularly low levels of testosterone may have lower levels of libido. Bernard Brodie (1949), the first thinker, who grasped that with these new weapons, warfare entered a strategically different era, defines the strategy as finding out how to mobilize and use national resources, materials, and human resources in order to maximize a country's wartime efficiency. If there is a subgroup of women who show improved mood and a subgroup of women who show mood disturbance, these two groups of women may offset each other and be obscured when looking at population data as a whole. Based on the domino theory in safety management (Heinrich et al., 1980), the causes of fall accidents at work can be classified into: 1. accident locations and situation (such as falling caused by pier column construction, falling caused by section block construction, and falling caused by uncoordinated behavior) and their detail; 2. indirect causes and their detail (such as unsafe behaviors, unsafe equipment and unsafe environments); and 3. primary causes (including improper safety plans, inappropriate environment maintenance, insufficient safety training, and poor safety management). For example, in the 1980s, former US President Ronald Reagan referred to the then USSR as an evil empire. In a similar vein, the George W. Bush administration in the United States conjured up an axis of evil in the aftermath of September 11, 2001 (9/11). Different geopolitical eras can be identified characterized by changes in hegemonic power from the colonial era dominance of the likes of Britain and France, through the USAUSSR rivalry of the Cold War, to the current military hegemony of the United States. Western foreign policy was not long confined to containing the Eurasian continental power along Heartland's borders, but adopted a strategy of checking the spread of Communism throughout the Third World. Furthermore, the indirect causes that may trigger a fall accident at the pier column construction can also be analyzed step by step. Is There a Relationship between Menopause and Mood? Much traditional geopolitical writing tended not just to be written from the perspective of a particular geographical and ideological standpoint but also from an assumption of inevitability. Linkage rationalized continued US fighting in Vietnam long after the war had been lost. Prospective research needs to follow women during their reproductive years to examine continuity with respect to responses to times of hormonal change. A number of studies have found a strong association between vasomotor complaints and depressed mood both cross-sectionally (Holte and Mikkelsen, 1991; Hunter, 1992; Palinkas and Barrett-Connor, 1992; Oldenhave et al., 1993; Collins and Lundgren, 1995) and longitudinally (Holte, 1992; Hunter, 1992; Avis et al., 1994). Although the idea of tactical nuclear weapons aimed to do less damage, the extent of the effects that would occur as a result of the use of these weapons could not be predicted exactly. The inevitability of Soviet expansion was also expressed in metaphors of dominoes or disease.

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